Among the various innovations that the profession of engineering has experienced in recent times, the marvel of Additive Manufacturing (AM) is perhaps the one with the most influential nature. Here, Melissa Albeck, CEO of online materials database Matmatch, explores the latest developments in the industry and how environmentally sustainable AM actually is.
With AM techniques being widely adopted in industries worldwide, design engineering and manufacturing are undoubtedly being ushered into a new era of development. 3D printing is the most well-known of all AM methods, and it has taken off in recent years. The fact that it has given engineers the luxury of rapid prototyping is a testament to its revolutionary nature, enabling them to perfect their designs in every aspect prior to mass production.
However, regardless of the capabilities of this design process, engineers are still faced with the challenge of making it environmentally sustainable and cost-effective so that it can be adopted on a much wider scale. One of the most common misconceptions regarding modern 3D printing is that only plastics are used in this process – but that’s simply not the case. Of course, resins are a popular choice as they offer a range of desirable properties like toughness or elasticity in solid form. SLA (stereolithography) and DLP (digital light processing) printers are common machines that are used to develop prototypes with resins.
Modern design engineers, though, have a wide array of different printable materials at their disposal whose applications differ depending upon numerous factors such as the material properties required, cost, colour, appearance, and layer thickness.
Metal is a popular alternative material choice as metals can be directly printed using various techniques like powder sintering or direct melting. Metals like aluminium, titanium, and stainless steel are popular choices among engineers due to the high strength and metallic finish. Similarly, several organic materials are now also being used to develop materials for AM. They provide adequate quality and can offer environmental benefits. An interesting example of this is stone; powdered stone is combined with environmental-friendly thermoplastic polymer PLA (polylactide) which gives products both a natural look and texture as well as a strong structure.
As these examples show, it is quite safe to say that plastics are not the only materials that AM techniques utilise. What remains, though, is the question of sustainable materials that guarantee not only innovation in engineering but also a greener, more liveable planet in times to come.
The rise of 3D printing is bound to grow rapidly in the near future. A report by MarketsandMarkets estimates an astounding compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.60per cent in the 5-year time period ending in 2021.
With this growth rate, engineers need to develop environmentally sustainable AM materials quickly, and they have responded. Now some materials can be entirely dissolved in a solvent without any harmful emissions. Researchers are developing materials for AM that are water-soluble, which means no special solvent is required and there are minimal material losses in the whole manufacturing process.
With materials being made out of natural biodegradable products, there are massive environmental benefits. For example, bioplastics producer Saphium Biotechnology has developed PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoates)-based filaments that are non-toxic and biodegradable. Applications of the material, according to the company, include waste-less prototyping and garden accessories. But perhaps in the future this kind of material could have much wider applications.
While there’s no guarantee as to how 3D printing will evolve, one thing’s for certain; the use of organic and compostable materials is likely to feature heavily as engineers continue working on ways to protect our planet, while AM technology continues to advance at ground breaking pace.